The Customer Journey Map (CJM) or User Journey Map is a tool to visualize complex flows and sequences in e.g. services, activities, websites, and apps, while designing concepts that generate value for the user and the provider. It usually gives an overview of all the steps a user goes through, including various actors, touchpoints and interactions. The qualitative and quantitative data feeding the CJM can be sourced from preliminary design research methods, such as observations, surveys, photo studies, and AEIOU. Alongside the creation of personas and scenarios, the data-synthesis of the CJM will help to discover gaps in the research. The outcomes of a CJM are subordinate to the data used to create the map. The most common CJM diagram consists of several icons (users, tools, touch points etc.), that are ordered in a timeline or aligned to resemble the setup of the observed physical space. Arrows, lines and flows connect the icons and signify interactions between the various phases [#1, #2]. Some other CJMs are simple graphs, illustrating behaviour, emotions or money and time spent (Y) in relation to the progress of the activity (X) [#3], or they are linear sequences of interactions illustrated with photographs, similar to a tutorial [#4]. Several persona-users can be incorporated into the same CJM to gain comparable data for different user groups. CJMs can be developed in a participatory research progress called “Customer Journey Mapping Game”.
Parallel to the adaptability to adapt to different content, the CJM can also be a useful exercise for several steps in the design process. It is most commonly used to analyse the current state of the inspected environment and helps to generate and frame insights based on the relationship between different observations and statements. The CJM can be found in different categories in various design methods books, e.g. to “Discover insights and create understanding while designing” , “Concept generation and early prototype iteration”  or “frame insights” .
[#1] Smirnow, Christian. Design-led Research: MoMa New York entrance area. (physical journey). PDF. September 2015.
[#2] van Biejen, Annemiek / etc. Delft Design Guide. p. 53
[#3] Smirnow, Christian. Design-led Research: MoMa New York entrance area. (emotional journey). PDF. September 2015.
[#4] Kumar, Vijay. 101 Design Methods. p. 182
 Van Boejen, Annemiek / Daalhuizen, Jaap / van der Schoor, Roos / Zijlstra, Jelle. Delft Design Guide: Design Strategies and Methods. BIS Publishers. Amsterdam, NL. April 2014. pp. 52-53
 Hanington, Bruce / Martin, Bella. Universal Methods of Design: 100 Ways to Research Complex Problems, Develop Innovative Ideas, and Design Effective Solutions. Rockport Publishers. Beverly, MA, USA. February 2012. pp 196-197
 Kumar, Vijay. 101 Design Methods: A Structured Approach for Driving Innovation in Your Organization. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley and Sons, 2013. pp. 182-183